2021 Speaker-list

More Information on the Speakers and an abstract to their Keynote can be found below.

Thomas Reiter (ESA, Astronaut)Photonics in view of space science
Ludwin Monz (Carl Zeiss AG, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG)Light for science,
technology, and medicine
Norbert Lemke (OHB System, Bremen) Photonics in space technology
Heinrich Voges (LaVision GmbH, Göttingen)Imaging Systems and
optical Sensors for
Research and Industry
Robert Fleischhaker (University of Applied Sciences Aachen) Micomachining with ultrashort laser pulses
Alexander Heisterkamp (Leibniz University Hannover) Clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT)
Andreas Hielscher (New York University) Optical Tomography in Medical Imaging
Andrea Koch (HAWK hhg, Göttingen)Optics design in
theory and practise
Magda Kowalska (CERN/ISOLDE, Geneva)ISOLDE/CERN peers into the world of DNA
Claus Lämmerzahl (ZARM, University Bremen)Experimental gravitation
and quantum optics
Jens Lassen (TRIUMF and Simon Frasier University, Vancouver)Laser ion sources: Applications and on-line isotope delivery
Christoph Lienau (Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg) Ultrafast nano-optics
Lothar Lilge (University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre) Light and Lasers in Medical Pre-clinical and Clinical Research
Walter Neu (ILO, University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer)Chemical analytics by optical spectroscopy
Eileen Otte (Stanford University & University of Muenster)Fully-structured light for advanced optical trapping
Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop (University of Queensland, Brisbane)Applications of ultracold degenerate atomic systems
Daniel Schondelmaier (Westsächsische Hochschule ZwickauThin films in micro- and nano-technology
Ronald Sroka (Ludwig Maximilians University Munich)Photodynamic therapy and diagnostics
Klaus Wendt (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)Ultratrace analysis by high resolution laser spectroscopy
Oliver Zielinski (ICBM, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg)Multispectral sensors for biogeochemical parameters and marine pollutants

Thomas Reiter (ESA)

“Human and robotic Exploration of Space – current highlights and future perspectives”

What are the programmatic pillars of the European Space Agency and what are ESA’s plans in the field of exploration? The presentation will give some insight into Europe’s activities in the domain of space in general, with a focus on the utilisation of the international space station ISS, the European role in returning humans to the Moon and our activities in robotic exploration of our neighbour planet Mars. 

Thomas Reiter was the eighth German in space. In 1995 he conducted ESA’s first long-duration mission to the Russian space Station Mir. His second mission in 2006 was to the International Space Station ISS. In total he spent 350 days in space and completed three ‘spacewalks’. Today, Thomas Reiter serves as ESA Interagency Coordinator and Advisor to the Director General.

Ludwin Monz

Member of the Executive Board of the ZEISS Group and Head of the Medical Technology Segment

“Light for science, technology, and medicine”

The study of light has led to numerous applications that have shaped so many aspects in our lives: High-speed internet is enabled by fiber networks, LED and touch displays made cell phones possible, successful manufacturing is based on precise optical measurements and laser processing, and many medical diagnoses and treatments save lives by working in a fast, sensitive and accurate way. The 21st century is the “century of light” and the evolution in optics and photonics will be further driven by fundamental research and a huge market for optically dominated products. The talk will provide an overview about industrial applications of photonics. A focus will be on medical applications and advancements. 

Norbert Lemke (OHB System, Bremen) 

Photonics in Space Technology

Photonics has is demonstrating its huge potential as an enabling technology for a wide range of crucial space applications. This potential will be shown in the areas of high-resolution observation of the earth from space, astronomical observation from space and optical communication between spacecrafts and between spacecrafts and ground.  

Today earth observation and reconnaissance satellites deliver huge amounts of data on a daily base for mapping and security applications, weather forecast, climate change observation and many more areas of applications. These data are gained over the whole IR, visible and UV spectral range with very high resolution and large field of views. With hyperspectral sensors data can taken in up to several hundred spectral bands simultaneously. Today, only the six Sentinel Satellites of the European Union deliver more than 150 terabytes on data every day. 

Dedicated astronomical observations require ultimate sensitivity and huge fields of view. Sensors with several hundred megapixels are in development. The GAIA Satellite launched in 2013 had already 1 Gigapixel sensor. 

 Communication in space and to the ground with radio waves reaches more and more limits, due the high request, which is constantly increasing. Capacities are limited due to interference reasons but future internet access via satellites is in development. Free-space optical communication is a powerful alternative. It has already demonstrated it power, e.g. communication between low earth orbit earth observation and geostationary satellites. Quantum communication and quantum cryptografie will allow a tap-proof transmission

Heinrich Voges (LaVision GmbH, Göttingen)

Imaging systems and optical sensors for research and industry“

Laser Imaging Systems are presented for multi-parameter measurements in combustion, sprays and flows. The systems measure concentration, temperature and fluid velocity applying the laser imaging techniques Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), Rayleigh scattering, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Extension to 3D imaging based on tomographic techniques are shown as well as high-speed imaging examples.  The simple Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) imaging technique is applied in industrial process applications like flow control in cleanrooms, heat flow monitoring or car glass inspection. Another automotive application is the in-cylinder gas analysis based on absorption spectroscopy.

Dr. Heinrich Voges studied physics at the University of Göttingen and got his PhD in physical chemistry (laser spectroscopy) from the Max-Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry. In 1989 he founded the company LaVision together with Professor Peter Andresen. From 1988 to 1991 he worked at the Laser Laboratory Göttingen (LLG) and was leading the research group Applied Combustion Diagnostics. In 1991 he joined LaVision first as technical director and since 1997 as a member of the management team. He has over thirty years experience in the field of laser imaging and absorption measurement techniques.

Robert Fleischhaker (University of Applied Sciences Aachen) 

Micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses 

Modern laser sources have developed to become a fast and precise tool in today’s portfolio of industrial manufacturing technology. Especially ultrashort-pulsed lasers have opened up new possibilities to machine all conceivable materials with high precision and minimal thermal damage. 

The lecture will cover the principles of this technology, corresponding requirements for the applied laser sources, the different physical processes involved, and some examples for typical applications. 

Alexander Heisterkamp (Leibniz University Hannover) 

Figure: Handheld clinically usable OCT (top) for vocal cord inspection. Red line (bottom left) shows the area of the video image, which is scanned by the OCT and allows sectioning into the superior layers of the vocal cord (bottom right).

Fundamentals and applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

Optical coherence tomography beautifully combines fundamental physics concepts such as interferometry in Michelson interferometers with very advanced photonic technologies and mathematical approaches. Being the analog to ultrasound imaging using light, OCT allows high resolution imaging of tissues and other semi-transparent media in non-invasive in vivo applications. Quite rapidly, this technology advanced from the physics labs to basically the routine of every eye doctor in industrial countries.

Nevertheless, the technique has seen steady advancement by implementing innovative optical technologies, allowing faster or functionally selective imaging.

In my lecture I will provide a hands-on approach on the fundamentals of OCT, giving the students a thorough introduction into the basic concepts, like time-domain and Fourier domain OCT. Following, I will show more recent implementations, ranging from Doppler-OCT over polarization sensitive OCT to full field OCT or holographic OCT. These topics will be accompanied by various exemplary applications of OCT, especially in the field of medicine.

Andreas Hielscher (New York University) 

Deep Tissue Optical Tomographic Imaging: From Clinical Systems to Wearable Technology

Deep tissue optical tomographic imaging (DOTI) seeks to obtain functional information about tissues to assist in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of various diseases. In this emerging imaging modality, near-infrared light is employed to illuminate the body part under investigation and transmitted and reflected light intensities are measured. So-called model-based iterative image reconstruction algorithms are then used to convert this information into 3-dimensional tomographic concentration maps of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb), and total hemoglobin (THb). Furthermore, other physiologically important parameters such as oxygen saturation (StO2), water content, tissue scattering, etc.  can be obtained. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made towards clinically viable DOTI systems that assess brain function, cancer (e.g. breast, prostate, and skin), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and joint diseases. In addition to providing insights on hardware design and image reconstruction software, the presentation will focus on recent results obtain in clinical studies involving breast cancer, PAD in diabetics, and lupus arthritis. Moreover, first efforts to make DOTI a wearable technology will be described. Novel flexible electronics allow the integration of related hardware into fabrics, which provides for a more user-friendly interface and in-home monitoring capabilities.

Andreas Hielscher is now the Chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at New York University, Tandon School of Engineering.

Andrea Koch (HAWK hhg, Göttingen)

Optical Design- Theory and practical course 

The aim of this lecture is to understand the origin of aberrations in optical imaging systems and to gain an insight in how to correct for these aberrations by using an optical design software. 

The paraxial description of an optical system is a widely used concept to analyse main functional properties of an optical setup. However, in many if not even all cases, this description is not sufficient but the performance of an optical system relies on the understanding and control of aberrations during the design process. 

Seidel aberration theory allows the calculation of monochromatic transverse ray aberrations using paraxial data only. Furthermore, the influence of different elements within an optical system on the amount of aberrations can be analysed since the calculation of Seidel aberrations is carried out surface by surface. If the optical system is designed for polychromatic light, the choice of optical materials becomes an important issue to minimize chromatic aberrations. 

Nowadays various optical design software packages with regard to price and scope are available. Any professional within the photonic branch and not only the designated optic designer of the company might want to take advantage of these design tools. The lecture gives a basic insight into how to get started and how to apply these tools by using Code V. 

Magda Kowalska (CERN/ISOLDE, Geneva)

ISOLDE/CERN peers into the world of DNA

Optical pumping with circularly-polarised light can be used to polarise spins of the valence electrons. As these interact with atomic nuclei via the hyperfine interaction, the process leads a 100% polarisation of nuclear spins, i.e. up to 5 orders of magnitude higher that the Boltzmann distribution in the strongest superconducting magnets.

At the ISOLDE facility at CERN we use optical pumping to spin-polarise beams of short-lived nuclei, such as lithium-11 with half-life of 9 ms. Because emission of beta particles from polarised nuclei is not isotropic in space, we use the degree of this anisotropy in a variety of fields. We can use it to determine spins and parities of excited states of nuclei. We can even search for “new physics” by comparing the observed anisotropy to the one expected in the Standard Model. 

Here, I will concentrate on the application which allows to increase a billion times the sensitivity of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Beta-detected NMR has been used to determined electromagnetic moments of short-lived nuclei and more recently to address questions in material science. Now we use it for the first time in liquid biological samples, starting by the interaction of DNA with alkali metals.

Dr. M. Kowalska has done research with radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE facility since her PhD times in Mainz. In 2015 she was awarded an ERC Starting Grant to implement liquid beta-NMR and to apply it in life sciences. She is now a research scientist at CERN and will apply polarised-nuclei also in searches for ‘new physics’.

Claus Lämmerzahl (ZARM, University Bremen)

“Experimental Gravitation and Quantum Optics”

In recent years Experimental Gravitation experienced a huge progress. The reason for that is twofold: new highly precise devices based on quantum mechanics and the consequent use of space conditions. The new devices use quantum technologies in terms of superconductivity, lasers, and cold atoms in SQUIDS, laser interferometry, atom interferometry, and atomic clocks. The advantage of using quantum devices will be discussed. Experiments performed in space benefit a lot from the large gravitational potential differences, large distances, force-free envorinment, and an environment free from seismic noise. 
The experiments carried out which led to new improved tests of General Relativity fall into two classes: tests of the foundations of General Relativity, that is, of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, and tests of the predictions of General Relativity. The Einstein Equivalence Principle consists of the Universality of Free Fall (also known as Weak Equivalence Principle), the Universality of the Gravitational Redshift, and Lorentz Invariance. Predictions are the gravitational redshift, light deflection, the Perihelion shift, the Lense-Thrring effect, the Schiff effect, the gravitational time delay, and gravitational waves. Also possible new tests will be proposed.  
Beside these classical tests also an outlook to new tests searching for a theory of Quantum Gravity is given. Finally, the everyday practical use of these technological developments like positioning, geodesy, and metrology is described. 

Jens Lassen (TRIUMF and Simon Frasier University, Vancouver)

„Laser ion sources: Applications and on-line isotope delivery“    by Dr. Jens Lassen (TRIUMF & SFU)

 Laser resonance ionization allows for ultra-sensitive and selective ionization of atomic species. This method is therefore ideally suited to detect trace quantities of elements and isotopes. The applications range from isotope ratio determination in geological and environmental samples, nuclear non-proliferation treaty verification measurements, astrophysics, isotope separation and the use as an element selective ion source at isotope separator facilities.

At TRIUMF, formerly known as Canada’s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics, a resonant ionization laser ion source is being used for roughly 75% of all radioactive ion beam delivery from the Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility. ISAC, like ISOLDE at CERN, is one of a few user facilities world wide providing radioactive isotope beams to experimenters from nuclear astrophysics to medical and material sciences. The predominant need of experimenters are high purity and high intensity beams. 

The presentation will discuss the current state of the art hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS technique and developments towards higher sensitivity and selectivity RILIS. 

Christoph Lienau (Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg) 

Ultrafast Nano-optics

In conventional optical resonators, light is confined to volumes larger than the cubed wavelength of the light. This limits the electric field strength that can be reached in such a cavity, and when molecules are inserted into the cavity, their cross section is much smaller than the extent of the light field and the interaction of the two is relatively inefficient.

This changes profoundly when switching to plasmonic nanocavities, where light can be concentrated to volumes defined not by the wavelength of the light but by the size of the plasmonic structure, i. e., to a few nanometers. An excitonic quantum emitter (X), such as a molecule or a quantum dot, placed in such a nanocavity and the strong light field of the localized surface plasmon (SPP) can couple to form a new mode, a coupled X-SPP mode. In this so-called strong-coupling regime, a coherent ultrafast energy exchange between the quantum emitters and the SPP fields has been predicted and observed, which could be a crucial mechanism for switching light on femtosecond time and nanometer length scales.    

These hybrid excitations can combine the light-localization properties of SPPs with the nonlinearity of quantum emitters. Their potential applications include ultrafast plasmonic switches, single-photon transistors, and control of charge transfer in modern photovoltaic materials.

Lothar Lilge (University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre)

Light and Lasers in Medical Pre-clinical and Clinical Research

The use of non-ionizing photons in medicine is of interest as the photons quantum energy is interacting with tissue on a molecular basis rather than on the atomic composition. Interactions resulting in a detectable modification of the photon gradients by the tissue can be exploited for diagnostic purposes, and conversely, the modification of the tissue through the energy deposition by the photons for therapeutic once. 

The majority of the current development of diagnostic or therapeutic photonic applications is based on linear photon-matter interactions and requires an understanding of the biological basis for the contrast to be exploited and understanding of the light transport in light scattering dominant materials. 

Considering linear photon-matter interactions, changes in the tissue biology leading to disease or a therapeutic response can be detected by absorption, fluorescence, Raman, polarization, photoacoustic and bioluminescence., For each of these interactions, a range of techniques can be employed. For fluorescence-based techniques, endogenous and exogenous fluorophores could be targeted, and changes in their absolute fluorescence intensity or fluorescence lifetime quantified. These technologies can provide complementary insights into the biochemical changes within the interrogated biological tissues. This also applies to image technologies, including Optical Coherence technologies and Photoacoustic Imaging. One issue for all diagnostic applications relates to the dilutions of the desired optical signal by surrounding normal tissue. 

Light propagation and the resulting gradient also cause limitations in confining possible therapeutic laser and light applications, for applications such as Photobiomodulation or Photodynamic Therapies. Confining the Therapy to the target volume, reducing morbidity is required to maximize the efficacy. 

While a large variety of non-linear applications are available, this lecture will focus on linear applications, one each for a diagnostic and for therapeutic applications. The former relates to breast cancer risk assessment, and the latter, Photodynamic Therapy a therapeutic application for various malignancies. In the lecture, it is shown how detailed knowledge can improve the accuracy of diagnostics and reduce morbidity during therapy. 

Walter Neu (ILO, University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer)

Chemical analytics by optical spectroscopy

Optical spectroscopy enables for unique methods in atomic and molecular analytics due to its extraordinary selectivity and sensitivity in probing on either organic or inorganic samples. Spectroscopic properties of solids, liquids, gases such as absorbance, fluorescence, scattering, and resonantly enhanced optical emission allow for qualitative and quantitative material and environmental analysis. This includes trace analysis, characterization of biological tissue, dynamic surface probing, and monitoring and process control in technical processes. The combination of different elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques, such as Laser-Induced Plasma (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy, report on complementary properties of atomic and molecular species in a variety of samples. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy is well established as a universal method for multi-element analysis on samples in arbitrary states of matter. Similar to Raman spectroscopy, almost no sample preparation or sample digestion is required. Raman spectroscopy, unlike fluorescence methods, does not require any labeling and is thus as universal on a molecular basis as LIBS spectroscopy for elemental analysis. Moreover, optical spectroscopy is a non-contact non-destructive method which can be applied remotely in harsh environments and also on delicate samples. Examples will be presented on industrial, biological, and trace analysis challenges on a wide range of samples, revealing the potential for online, on-site and in-situ analysis.

Eileen Otte (Stanford University & University of Muenster)

Fully-structured light for advanced optical trapping

As introduced by Nobel prize awardee Arthur Ashkin, already a standard Gaussian beam represents a powerful tool allowing for trapping and manipulating particles by light. However, research in the past decades unveiled great unexploited potential for the advancement of optical manipulation: the implementation of structured light. Shaping light in amplitude and phase enables sophisticated 2D as well as 3D trapping potentials and guiding particles by, for instance, customized phase flow. As additional degree of freedom, polarization modulation has come to the fore, not only facilitating complex energy flow structures but also innovative tightly focused light landscapes of tailored 3D instead of standard 2D polarization. Beyond, by combining amplitude, phase, and polarization modulation, fully-structured light becomes accessible, thus, trapping gets full structure.

We present basic principles and recent advances in the field of structured light for optical trapping, particularly highlighting the pioneering role of polarization modulation. We introduce techniques for holographic beam shaping, going from established amplitude and phase structuring, via modern polarization customization, to advanced fully-structuring of light. As a highlight, we demonstrate the formation of nano-structured trapping landscapes embedding complex 3D polarization structures as optical Möbius strips. These focal fields will revolutionize optical trapping of polarization-sensitive objects, opening new perspectives for the formation of functional and intelligent matter. 

Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop (University of Queensland, Brisbane)

Structured Light in Quantum Atom Optics and Optical Tweezers

The ability to sculpt light fields using spatial light modulators (SLM) or Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD) has given us tools of choice for the production of configurable and flexible confining potentials at the nano and micron‐scale. Sculpted light can also be produced using time averaged methods such as Acousto‐Optics Modulators (AOM). Here a rapid angular modulation of Gaussian beam with a two‐axis acousto‐optic modulator, AOM, can be used as highly configurable time‐ averaged traps. Using DMDs we can produce dynamical fast and flexible structured light fields and can directly image the amplitude patterns. DMD can configure the amplitude of an input beam either in the Fourier plane or in a direct imaging configuration. Sculptured light produced using these methods gives high flexibility and an opportunity for trapping and driving systems ranging from studies of quantum thermodynamics using ultra cold atoms to trapping and manipulating nano and micron‐size objects or even making measurements in‐vivo inside biological cells.

T. Neely, Guillaume Gauthier, T. Bell, A. Pritchard, S. Simianovski, A. Stilgoe, I. Fabvre‐Bulle, D. Armstrong, M. Watson, t. Nieminen

ARC CoE for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia

Daniel Schondelmaier (Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau

Thin films in micro- and nano-technology

“Micro- and Nanomaterials possesses unique physical and chemical properties and offers therefore a broad applications spectrum.  During the last fifteen years, they have attracted tremendous attention especially in the field of high-performance device applications. Let us think at a microelectronic component whose critical dimensions have been pushed very quickly into the nanometer range –Transistors. The benefits and practicality differ for each nanomaterial and in order to enable the next generation of technological advancement, many methods for structuring surfaces, for depositing thin films and for functionalizing surfaces with such a kind of nanomaterials have been developed. The research and development in this filed continue advancing and provides an attractive job for many people. Due to its increasing importance became Nanotechnology, in many academic institutions, an integral part of many courses.

The present talk aims to give a basic overview of modern micro- and nano-scale processing (pattern transfer by different lithography techniques; thermal- and chemical processes for etching and modification of materials; thin film deposition methods). Also, some examples of basic processing steps for fabrication, optics, light-emitting diodes, functionalized surfaces, micro-electromechanical systems will be presented. “

Ronald Sroka (Ludwig Maximilians University Munich)

Fluorescence Guided Procedures and Photodynamic Therapy in Neurosurgery

This lecture gives an introduction about the application of photoactive drugs and their use for fluorescence guided resection, optical guided biopsy and photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery. Besides the medical needs, requests and boundary conditions the physics and technical research and developments will be presented aiming in clinical applications. Preliminary study results as well as the potential of optical dosimetry concepts based on light-tissue interaction and light-photosensitizer interaction are included summarizing the latest developments in this field.

Fluorescence in Neurosurgery

After description of the clinical needs in neurosurgery, and the possibilities of receiving a selective accumulation of the photosensitizer in the target tissue, the newest development of fluorescence detection techniques (e.g. fiber based, imaging) according with their limitations and potentials will be presented. The development of such technologies will be described based on simulations, phantom based experiments as well as on the influences of the optical properties of the tissue.

PDT in Neurosurgery

After description of PDT, the technological developments for sufficient illumination of resection cavities and tumor volumes will be presented. Regarding this, specific recommendations to the illumination systems should be fulfilled and their technical solutions are presented. Furthermore, the importance of optical feedback together with potential optical technological solutions will be described resulting in a dosimetry concept for clinical availability. 

Klaus Wendt (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)

Ultratrace analysis by high resolution laser spectroscopy

The determination of lowest level amounts of specific elemental or even isotopic traces and ultra traces in various types of sample materials is of highest relevance for a multitude of fundamental research fields as well as analytical or radiometric applications. In particular, long-lived radioisotopes of either natural or anthropogenic origin are of concern not only regarding radiotoxicity in the environment but may also serve as tracers for dedicated geological, astrophysical and increasingly bio-medical studies.  

As a very sensitive and highly selective technique, multi-step resonant atomic excitation and ionization using tunable lasers is coupled to well adapted mass spectrometric devices to ensure highest values for the essential specifications. Selectivity in respect to an element or isotope of concern in combination to a most sensitive detection is of major concern. Suppression of isobaric contaminations and the high ionization efficiency of the resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) technique, which is used in a rather similar manner also as most efficient ionization methods at on-line production facilities for exotic radioisotopes, ensures lowest detection limits. Today it is applied e.g. for routine inspection of Pu isotope content and composition in environmental samples with LODs as low as 105 atoms, corresponding to activity levels in the µBq range. In addition, analytical and fundamental studies on the majority of actinide elements are carried out, including ultra trace determination on the radiotoxic minor actinides Np, Am and Cm as well as the long-lived fission product 99Tc stemming from nuclear technologies. 

Analytic investigations on ultra rare isotopes of ubiquitous elements like 41Ca, 90Sr or 233U require very specific high resolution techniques employing the optical isotope shift through narrow bandwidth laser radiation to suppress the very high surplus of neighboring stable isotopes or isobars. Spatial resolution in sensitive and selective laser based analytics for dedicated surface and particle analysis is realized by combining sputtering processes with resonance ionization on the secondary neutrals. 

In all cases it is important to reveal the most often complex atomic structures, to derive atomic level positions and suitable excitation pathways up to ionization and finally to precisely determine the key parameter of the first ionization potential for each element under study as important prerequisite for implementation and optimization of the analytic atom counting by RIMS. 

Z. T. Lu and K.D.A. Wendt, Rev. Sci. Instr., 74, 1169 (2003)
K. Wendt, N. Trautmann, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 242, 161 (2005)

Oliver Zielinski (ICBM, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg)

Multispectral sensors for biogeochemical parameters and marine pollutants 

Center for Marine Sensors (ZfMarS) of ICBM at University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven

German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Oldenburg

Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of biogeochemical parameters and marine pollutants across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor ecosystem health and potential hazards. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of the marine ecosystem status. In particular, multispectral sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess status, dynamics and hazards alike. In this lecture, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of biogeochemical parameters and harmful substances in the ocean. Optical sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect changes in marine ecosystems at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology and data stream mining are expected to depend on the development of small-scale smart sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these connect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of data stream mining and machine learning into complex and operational sensing systems enabling a comprehensive situational awareness and long-term monitoring.